Islam in Argentina is represented by one of Latin America’s largest Muslim minorities. Although accurate statistics on religion are not available (because the national census does not solicit religious data) the actual size of Argentina’s Muslim community is estimated between 2-2.5% of the total population (300,000-900,000) 
Early Muslim immigration
Though early Spanish and Portuguese explorers and immigrants to the New World were very familiar with Muslims and Islamic culture (due to 800 years of Moorish rule), it is doubtful that any Muslims were among the first wave of the largely Spanish and Italian settlers who formed the majority of the immigrant population in colonial Argentina.
The 20th century saw an influx of Arab migrants to the country, mostly from Syria and Lebanon. It is estimated that today there are about 3.5 million Argentinians of Arab descent. The majority of these Arab immigrants were Christians and Sephardic Jews, and though accurate information is unavailable, probably less than a quarter of Arab migrants were actually Muslim. The descendants of Arab Jews are more likely to identify themselves as Jewish rather than Arab today. In any case, conversion to Catholicism, Argentina’s state religion, was common amongst these early Muslim pioneers.
Among other notable Arab immigrants is the Menem family, who were of Syrian origin and Muslim themselves. Former President Carlos Menem was allowed to run for the presidency only because he was a Catholic, since Catholic affiliation was a constitutional requirement for the head of state at the time (this was abolished in the 1994 constitutional reform).
Recent Immigration and Conversion
More recent Muslim immigration is comprised mostly of immigrants from South Asia. Reports of conversion to Islam amongst Argentines has grown in recent years, although no accurate data exists with regard to their numbers.
Islamic Institutions In Argentina
There is a prominent mosque on Alberti St. in Buenos Aires, in the city center, that was built in 1989 by local Argentinian Muslims. There are also several mosques in other cities and regions throughout the country, most notably the Triple Frontier (the tri-border area along the junction of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay).
The King Fahd Islamic Cultural Center, the largest mosque in South America, was completed in 1996 with the help of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, on a piece of land measuring 20,000 m². The total land area granted by the Argentine government measures 34,000 m², and was offered by President Carlos Menem following his visit to Saudi Arabia in 1992. The project cost around US$30 million, and includes a mosque, library, two schools, a park, is located in the middle-class district of Palermo, Buenos Aires.
The Islamic Organization of Latin America(IOLA), headquartered in Argentina, is considered the most active organization in Latin America in promoting Islamic affiliated endeavors. The IOLA holds events to promote the unification of Muslims living in Latin America, as well as the propagation of Islam.
1 International Religious Freedom (2000)edited by Barbara Larkin, pg 96
2 September 2001 Executive Summary, Racial Discrimination: The Record of Argentina, Human Rights Documentation Center
3 Menem, Carlos.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. 6 July 2006